Coal-dependent EU member Poland aims to shut its last mine by the bloc's 2050 target, but experts warn the move to go green comes late and faces many hurdles.
Despite three decades of successful market reforms and strong growth since its transition from communism to democracy, Poland still relies on coal for around 80 percent of its power.
Its massive Belchatow brown coal-fired power station is the European Union's "single largest greenhouse gas emitter", according to the EU and several global environmental associations.
A relic of the communist era, Belchatow is fueled by a vast nearby strip-mine and covers around 20 percent of Poland's energy needs.
Poland would have had to begun weaning itself off coal decades ago to meet EU net-zero emissions targets, according to Professor Piotr Skubala, from the Silesian University in the heart of the southern coal region.