Climate trends in the Antarctic region remain poorly characterized, owing to the brevity and scarcity of direct climate observations and the large magnitude of inter annual to decadal-scale climate variability.
As a result, the knowledge of past Antarctic temperature and climate variability is predominantly dependent on proxy records from natural archives. Paleo temperature reconstructions from Antarctica mainly rely on water stable isotope records from ice cores with the key factor controlling this proxy mainly related to temperature variations.
Early efforts to reconstruct the continental-scale temperature history of Antarctica over the past 2000 years indicated that at the continent-scale Antarctica is the only land region where the long-term cooling trend of the last 2000 years has not yet been reversed by recent significant warming.
However, this Antarctic temperature reconstruction has large uncertainties and masks important regional-scale features of Antarctica climate evolution over the last 2,000 years.